What Dream For Africa Did Kwame Nkrumah Express?
- Jason Spencer
Kwame Nkrumah saw the end of colonialism in Africa as his life’s work and mission in this world. His goal was to allow people of African descent to regain the dignity that was taken away from them as a result of things like slavery and colonialism so that they might participate fully and freely in the emerging global society on an equal footing.
What did Kwame Nkrumah do in the Civil Rights Movement?
United States According to the historian John Henrik Clarke, who wrote an article on Nkrumah’s sojourn in the United States, “the influence of the ten years that he spent in the United States would have a lingering effect on the rest of his life.” Nkrumah’s experience in the United States “would have a lingering effect on the rest of his life.” Nkrumah submitted his application to Lincoln University quite some time before he started attending classes there.
On March 1, 1935, he wrote a letter to the school in which he mentioned that his application had been sitting in the queue for more than a year. After arriving in New York in October 1935, he made his way to Pennsylvania and enrolled in college there, despite the fact that he did not have enough money to pay for the entire semester.
Soon after, he became the recipient of a scholarship that paid for his education at Lincoln University. Throughout his tenure in the United States, he struggled to come up with sufficient finances. He had a variety of low-paying jobs, including one as a dishwasher, in order to make ends meet.
Sunday after Sunday, he would travel to Philadelphia and New York to attend black Presbyterian churches. In 1939, Nkrumah earned a Bachelor of Arts degree with a double concentration in economics and sociology. After that, Lincoln made him an assistant lecturer in philosophy, and he quickly started getting invited to preach as a guest at Presbyterian churches in Philadelphia and New York.
In 1939, Kwame Nkrumah enrolled at Lincoln’s seminary and at the Ivy League University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Two years later, in 1942, he was admitted into the Mu chapter of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity at Lincoln University. Nkrumah went on to become Ghana’s first president.
In 1942, Nkrumah graduated from Lincoln University with the highest grade in his class, earning a Bachelor of Theology degree. The next year, he returned to Penn to complete his studies and was awarded a Master of Arts in philosophy as well as a Master of Science in education. While Nkrumah was a student at Penn, he collaborated with the linguist William Everett Welmers to compile the first descriptive grammar of the Fante dialect of the Akan language, which was Nkrumah’s home tongue.
The grammar was based on the spoken material that Nkrumah provided. Nkrumah used to spend the summers in Harlem, which is widely regarded as the intellectual and cultural epicenter of the black community. He had a tough time finding accommodation and job in New York City, but he eventually became active in the local community.
According to Clarke, Kwame Nkrumah during his years in America remarked that these evenings were an essential part of Kwame Nkrumah’s American education. He spent many hours listening to and debating with street orators. He was planning on attending a college, specifically the institution located in Harlem Streets.
This was not a typical day, and the people who were speaking on the street were not typical males. Open forums could be seen on the streets of Harlem, with expert speakers such as Arthur Reed and his disciple Ira Kemp serving as moderators. The teenage Carlos Cook, who would later become the founder of the Garvey-inspired African Pioneer Movement, was present at the time and delivered a message to his street followers every evening.
Suji Abdul Hamid, a champion of Harlem labor, would occasionally hold a night demonstration and demand that there be more employment available for black people in their own community. This was a portion of the drama that was unfolding on the streets of Harlem as Kwame Nkrumah, a student, went about and watched it.
Nkrumah was a politically active student who founded the African Students Association of America and Canada after uniting a group of African students living abroad in Pennsylvania into what would later become the African Students Association of America and Canada.
- Nkrumah advocated for a Pan-African policy, but other members of the organization believed that the group’s goal should be for each colony to achieve independence on its own.
- Nkrumah played a significant part in the Pan-African conference that took place in New York in 1944.
- The purpose of the meeting was to persuade the United States, following the conclusion of World War II, to assist in making certain that Africa became developed and free.
Aggrey, his former instructor and mentor, had passed away in the United States in 1929, and Nkrumah performed traditional prayers for Aggrey at the burial in 1942. This caused a rift between him and Lincoln, but once he achieved success in the Gold Coast, he went back to the university in 1951 to take an honorary degree.
- Nkrumah’s PhD thesis was, however, never finished during his lifetime.
- While he was a student at the Amissano seminary, he accepted the name Francis as his given name.
- In 1945, he changed his name to Kwame Nkrumah.
- As it was during the time of the Egyptians, so it was now that God had ordained that certain members of the African race should travel westwards in order to equip themselves with knowledge and experience for the day when they would be called upon to return to their motherland and to use the knowledge they had acquired in order to assist in improving the lot of their brethren.
When I was younger, I was unaware that I would play such a significant role in the realization of this prophesy. – Kwame Nkrumah, from his autobiography, The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (1957) Nkrumah spent his time reading literature on politics and theology and also worked as a philosophy teacher for pupils.
In 1943, Nkrumah met members of an American-based Marxist intellectual cohort that included Chinese-American Grace Lee Boggs, Trinidadian Marxist C.L.R. James, and Russian exile Raya Dunayevskaya. All three of these individuals were members of the Marxist intellectual group. James was the one who, in later years, Nkrumah credited with teaching him “how an underground movement functioned.” The data on Nkrumah that were held by the Federal Bureau of Investigation from January to May of 1945 indicate that he may have been a communist.
As soon as the Second World War was over, Nkrumah had made up his mind that he was going to travel all the way to London so that he could proceed with his studies there. James, in a letter sent in 1945 and intended to introduce Nkrumah to George Padmore, who was born in Trinidad and was living in London, wrote: “This young guy is on his way to speak with you.
When was Kwame Nkrumah born and when did he die?
Kwame Nkrumah led Ghana to independence and served as the country’s first president after returning home after pursuing a career in academia in the United States and England. However, his dream of a union similar to the one in the United States could not be realized.
- When did Kwame Nkrumah live? (Nkroful, Ghana) on September 21, 1909; passed away on April 27, 1972 (Bukarest, Rumania) What did Kwame Nkrumah become famous for during his lifetime? Pan-Africanist who was instrumental in the establishment of the Organization of African Unity.
- He is best known for guiding Ghana to its independence in 1957 and serving as the country’s first Prime Minister and President (until being overthrown in 1966).
(later to become the African Union). Why did Kwame Nkrumah get such harsh criticism? identifying oneself as a Marxist while having sympathies for socialist ideas. Because of this, he gained enemies both inside and outside of his nation. Some people have the opinion that US intelligence was to blame for his fall from power.
Who was it that Kwame Nkrumah looked up to, or who looked up to him? He became deeply involved in the fight for the emancipation of African Americans, met Martin Luther King Jr. while he was in the United States, and studied the works of sociologist, pan-Africanist, and human rights activist W.E.B. Dubois, whom he subsequently debated with.
During his time spent studying in Great Britain, he became acquainted with a number of other Africans who were also fighting for their countries’ independence. These individuals included Malawi’s Hastings Kamuzu Banda, Kenya’s Jomo Kenyatta, and Ethiopia’s Haile Selassie.
- What are some well-known quotes attributed to Kwame Nkrumah? “We face neither East nor West; we face ahead,” is the orientation of our bodies.
- Men are the ones who bring about revolutions; more specifically, it is men who think as men of action and act as men of thinking.” “Freedom is not something that can be given as a present from one group of people to another.
They assert that it is their property, and no one can take it away from them. Could you tell me more about the most well-known argument that has been raised concerning Kwame Nkrumah’s legacy? In the year 2012, a monument of Kwame Nkrumah was presented to the headquarters of the African Union in Addis Ababa.
- But why Nkrumah? Many people in Ethiopia believed that the former Emperor Haile Selassie should have been honored because he is recognized as the founding father of the African Union (AU).
- However, Meles Zenawi, who was serving as Prime Minister of Ethiopia at the time, defended Kwame Nkrumah.
- This package was developed with contributions from Isaac Kaledzi, Gwendolin Hilse, and Philipp Sandner.
It is a part of the special series “African Roots” that DW is producing in collaboration with the Gerda Henkel Foundation and is dedicated to the history of Africa. Nkrumah had the opportunity to meet other African leaders who were also struggling for freedom while he was studying overseas.
What is the best book on Kwame Nkrumah?
For further information, see:
- Arhin, Kwame (1993). Kwame Nkrumah’s Work and Life Are Examined Here ISBN 9780865433953 Published by Africa World Press, Inc. in Trenton, New Jersey (08543395X)
- Baynham, Simon (1988). The Relationship Between the Military and Politics in Kwame Nkrumah’s Ghana Special African Studies from the Westview Press. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Inc. (Frederick A. Praeger), ISBN 0-8133-70639
- Biney, Ama. “A Reflection on the Legacies Left Behind by Kwame Nkrumah.” The Journal of Pan African Studies, Volume 2, Issue 3 (2008). internet, historical writings and research
- Ama Biney, Kwame Nkrumah’s Political and Social Thought: A Critical Analysis (2011).
- “The Development of Kwame Nkrumah’s Political Thought in Exile, 1966–1972,” by Ama Biney. “The Development of Kwame Nkrumah’s Political Thought in Exile.” The Journal of African History, Volume 50, Number 1 (2009): 81–100.
- Henry L. Bretton’s “The Rise and Fall of Kwame Nkrumah: A Study of Personal Rule in Africa” is a study of personal rule in Africa (1967).
- Davidson, Basil (2007), A Look at the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah is Presented in the Book “Black Star.” James Currey, Oxford, United Kingdom ISBN 978-1-84701-010-0,
- The Defense Intelligence Agency published a report titled “Supplement, Kwame Nkrumah, President of Ghana” on January 12, 1966.
- Gerits, Frank. International History Review 37.5 (2015): 951–969 has an article titled “When the Bull Elephants Fight: Kwame Nkrumah, Non-Alignment, and Pan-Africanism as an Interventionist Ideology in the Global Cold War (1957–66)”.
- Roger S. Gocking’s “The History of Ghana” (2005).
- James, C.L.R. (1977). Nkrumah and the revolution that took place in Ghana. ISBN 0-85031-461-5, published by Allison & Busby in London.
- Mazrui, Ali (1966). “Nkrumah: The Leninist Czar”. Transition (26): 8–17. doi: 10.2307/2934320, JSTOR 2934320,
- Milne, June. Kwame Nkrumah: a biography (1999).
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2006). “Nyerere and Nkrumah: Towards African Unity.” “Towards African Unity.” The end of an era for both Nyerere and Africa (Third ed.). New Africa Press, located in Pretoria, South Africa, published pages 347–355 in their book. ISBN 0-9802534-1-1,
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2015), Western Involvement in Nkrumah’s Downfall, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: New Africa Press. ISBN 9789987160044
- Omari, T. Peter. “Kwame Nkrumah: The Anatomy of an African Dictatorship.” (Omari, Kwame Nkrumah: The Anatomy (1970).
- The name Robert Pinkney (1972). The Years 1966–1969 That Ghana Was Ruled by the Military ISBN number: 0-41675080X, published by Methuen & Co. Ltd. in London
- Poe, D. Zizwe (2003). The contribution that Kwame Nkrumah made to the Pan-African Agency ISBN 0-203-50537-9, published by Routledge in New York.
- You, David Rooney. It was Kwame Nkrumah who established the Political Kingdom in the Third World (1988).
- The article “Amilcar Cabral and the Liberation of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde: International, Transnational, and Global Dimensions” was published in 2019 by Rui Lopes and Victor Barros. A publication known as the International History Review.
- Sanders, Charles L. (September 1966). The article is titled “Kwame Nkrumah: the Fall of a Messiah.” Ebony, USA.
- Smertin, Yuri. Kwame Nkrumah,1987: Published in Moscow by Progress Publishers
- Tuchscherer, Konrad (2006). “Kwame Francis Nwia Kofie Nkrumah”. In Coppa, Frank J (ed.). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Autocrats and Dictators Pages 217–220, published in New York by Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-5010-3,
- The Intercontinental Book Centre posed the question, “Godfrey Mwakikagile: A Eurocentric Africanist?.” Retrieved 8 December 2021,
- Tomá Frantiek ák published an article in 2016 titled “Applying the Weapon of Theory: Comparing the Philosophy of Julius Kambarage Nyerere and Kwame Nkrumah.” Journal of African Cultural Studies, volume 28, number 2, pages 147–160. doi:10.1080/13696815.2015.1053798, S2CID 146709996.
What does Nkrumah say about independence for Africa?
Nkrumah was never able to return to Ghana, yet he never stopped working toward his goal of African unification despite being forced into exile and eventually passing away. During his time in exile, he resided in Conakry, Guinea, at the invitation of President Ahmed Sékou Touré, who bestowed upon him the title of honorary co-president of Guinea.
Nkrumah spent his time reading, writing, maintaining correspondence, gardening, and hosting visitors. In spite of the fact that he had retired from public duty, he had the impression that he was still under threat from Western intelligence agencies. After the unsolved death of his chef, he became paranoid that he might be poisoned by someone and began stockpiling food in his chamber.
He had a strong suspicion that foreign operatives were rummaging through his correspondence and so lived in a state of continual worry of being kidnapped or murdered. In August of 1971, as his health was rapidly deteriorating, he boarded a plane to seek medical care in Bucharest, Romania.
In April of 1972, at the age of 62, he passed away due to prostate cancer when he was in Romania. In the Ghanaian hamlet of Nkroful, where he was born, Kwame Nkrumah was laid to rest in a tomb. His bones were moved to a massive national memorial tomb and park in Accra, Ghana, but the tomb itself was left at Nkroful to serve as a place of commemoration.
Nkrumah received honorary doctorates from a number of institutions throughout his lifetime. Some of these universities are Lincoln University (Pennsylvania), Moscow State University (USSR), Cairo University (Egypt), Jagiellonian University (Poland), and Humboldt University (Germany) ( East Germany ).
- Wame Nkrumah Memorial Park and Mausoleum Listeners to the BBC World Service voted him African Man of the Millennium in the year 2000.
- The BBC described him as a “Hero of Independence” and a “International symbol of freedom as the leader of the first black African country to shake off the chains of colonial rule.” This led to him being named African Man of the Millennium by the listeners.
According to intelligence papers made public by the Office of the Historian of the United States Department of State, “Nkrumah was doing more to damage interests than any other black African.” It was on the 100th anniversary of Kwame Nkrumah’s birth, September 21, 2009, that Ghana’s President John Atta Mills proclaimed Founders’ Day as a national holiday.
The purpose of the event is to honor Kwame Nkrumah’s legacy and the contributions he made to Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Day was formerly known as Founders’ Day before President Akufo-Addo in April 2019 gave his approval to the Public Holidays (Amendment) Act 2019, which altered the name of September 21 to Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Day.
He thought that capitalism had cancerous repercussions that were going to stay with Africa for a long time, and in general, he held a Marxist perspective on economics that was not associated with any particular Marxist school. Nkrumah argued that socialism was the system that would best accommodate the changes that capitalism had brought, while still respecting African values.
- Despite the fact that he made it clear that he distanced himself from the African socialism of many of his contemporaries, he maintained that socialism was the system.
- In an article he wrote in 1967 titled “African Socialism Revisited,” he goes into extensive detail about these topics and his political views: We know that the old African civilization was built on ideas of equality.
In its real workings, however, it had many problems. In spite of this, its humanism energy is something that keeps pushing us towards the socialist rebuilding of all of Africa. We conceive each individual to be an end in himself, not just a means; and we embrace the importance of ensuring each man equal possibilities for his growth.
- The ramifications of this for sociopolitical practice have to be figured out scientifically, and the relevant social and economic policies followed with resolve.
- Any real humanism must originate with egalitarianism and must lead to objectively decided measures for defending and sustaining egalitarianism,
Hence, socialism. Hence, likewise, scientific socialism, Nkrumah was also best-known politically for his strong dedication to and advocacy of pan-Africanism, The works of black intellectuals, such as Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. Du Bois, and George Padmore, as well as his interactions with those authors served as a source of motivation for him.
His time spent as a student in the United States accounted for a significant portion of his overall comprehension of and connection to these individuals. Although he had a significant contact with C.L.R. James, some people believe that Marcus Garvey was his primary source of motivation. Nkrumah sought to these men to devise a comprehensive remedy for the problems that plagued Africa.
Nkrumah planned to complete his study in London so that he might follow in the intellectual footsteps of his father and grandfather, but he ended up being involved in direct action instead. After that, Nkrumah made the decision to concentrate on establishing peace throughout Africa in response to Du Bois’s recommendation.
He became a fervent supporter of the “African Personality,” which was symbolized in the phrase “Africa for the Africans,” which Edward Wilmont Blyden had popularized earlier, and he believed that political freedom was a necessity for economic independence. These academics were drawn to the initiatives that Nkrumah was working on in Ghana because of his devotion to pan-Africanism in action.
In order to assist him in his endeavors, a large number of Americans, including Du Bois and Kwame Ture, relocated to Ghana. Today, the graves of these guys may be found there. Sam Morris, an anticolonialist from Grenada, served as his publicity officer for a period of six years.
The greatest accomplishment that Nkrumah accomplished in this field was exerting a large amount of influence in the establishment of the Organization of African Unity. In addition, in the United States, Nkrumah began to be seen as a symbol of black emancipation. Ralph Bunche, a diplomat, addressed Kwame Nkrumah during an event held in his honor by the Harlem Lawyers Association in the year 1958.
Bunche said to Nkrumah, “We applaud you, Kwame Nkrumah, not simply because you are Prime Minister of Ghana, although this is cause enough.” You are a true and living representation of our hopes and ideals, of the determination we have to be accepted fully as equal beings, of the pride we have held and nurtured in our African origin, of the freedom of which we know we are capable, of the freedom in which we believe, of the dignity that is essential to our standing as men.
We salute you because you are a true and living representation of our hopes and ideals. I Speak Of Freedom was the title of a speech that Kwame Nkrumah gave in the year 1961. During this particular address, he discussed how “Africa has the potential to become one of the greatest forces for good in the world.” He talks about how Africa is a country of “huge wealth” and how the continent’s mineral resources “range from gold and diamonds to uranium and petroleum.” According to Nkrumah, the reason why Africa is not flourishing at the moment is because the European countries have been appropriating all of the resources for themselves.
He believed that the only way for Africa to fully grow and make a meaningful contribution to the world would be for it to gain its independence from European dominance. In the concluding remarks of this address, Nkrumah urges the people of Ghana to take action by declaring “This is our window of opportunity.