What Two Categories Of Dream Content Did Sigmund Freud Describe?

What Two Categories Of Dream Content Did Sigmund Freud Describe
How do the many components of a dream interact with one another? Freud (1900) recognized that the material that appears in dreams is drawn from, but not similar to, the material that appears in waking life. As a result, he proposed that there must be some kind of transformation and link between these elements.

  • He argued that these linkages are not coincidental but rather bound by one’s unconscious inclinations, and that “a dream is the realization of a wish” as a result (p.122).
  • In addition to this, he discovered that “unpleasant” dreams appear to be more common than “pleasant” dreams (p.134), which led him to the conclusion that dreams may be used to conceal their actual meaning (i.e., indirectly fulfilling wishes).

In light of this, Freud distinguished between two categories of dreams: apparent dreams and hidden dreams. He said that the dream that is now hidden from view is the true dream, and that the purpose of dream interpretation is to uncover it. In order to expound more on this concept, Freud outlined four different processes that might be used to conceal latent dreaming.

  • The term “condensation” refers to the narrowing down and simplifying of the complex contents of a dormant dream.
  • The term “displacement” refers to the act of substituting different features (such as components, intensity, importance, and attributes) of a manifest dream with those of a latent dream in order to make them distinct from one another.

Symbols denote that an underlying dream is being communicated via the appropriate signs. The secondary edit includes making the disorganized and illogical dream content more logical and well-organized. This system is responsible for giving the impression that a dream has meaning, even while the dream as it is presented diverges significantly from the dream’s true significance (Freud, 1900 ).

  1. The self-organization hypothesis of dreaming does not agree with this approach; rather, it presents Freud’s dream work from a different point of view.
  2. This theory proposes that the nature of condensation is the fragmentation of memories during the consolidation phase.
  3. This is because during this process, significant information needs to be extracted so that it may be further processed.

According to this point of view, the ability to relocate hinges on the sleeping brain’s limited ability to exert control and the large degree of latitude that dream elements are given. In this condition, the brain creates new connections between distinct pieces.

Subsequently, the self-organization mechanism combines numerous parts to produce a “story” that is largely concordant; Freud’s theory refers to this as secondary revision. Because the components that are presented in a dream are just memory fragments and other aspects of information processing, there are no symbols that are equivalent to those that appear in the dream (see Zhang, 2016 ).

The interpretation of dream symbolism by certain academics has also been criticized for being overly fantastical (see Freud, 1916 ). In other words, dreams are not riddles that need to be interpreted (Hartmann, 2010a). Furthermore, “the manifest dream is the true dream” (Jiménez, 2012).

  1. According to this point of view, Freud’s dream work does not exist.
  2. On the other hand, this stance does not imply that the self-organization process does not lend support to the interpretation of dreams.
  3. According to the self-organization idea, the brain’s ability to manage both physical and mental activity is significantly diminished while the person is asleep as compared to when the person is awake (Kahn et al., 2000, 2002 ).

Therefore, the constituents of a dream are characterized by a greater degree of freedom than the mental content of an individual while they are awake, which makes the possibility of hyperassociativity between these aspects feasible (Hartmann, 2010b ; Horton and Malinowski, 2015 ).

Because of this, dreams are able to depict strange events and’miracles’ that are impossible to take place in real life (Zhang, 2016 ). However, this “disordered condition” is not endless; if left untreated, it might impede brain function. As a result, the self-organization mechanism is required. This process ensures that the dreaming brain remains in a somewhat stable state by providing a method by which the system may generate ordered behavior, structure, or pattern from an otherwise disordered state (Haken, 1977 ; Prigogine and Stengers, 1984 ; Fingelkurts et al., 2013 ).

During this procedure, order parameters and collective variables are both extremely important. The state of a system is often defined by a large number of variables that characterize the various components of the system. The interactions that take place between the various parts of the system will, under certain circumstances, bring to the system’s arrival at a critical state, which is characterized by the rapid disappearance of the majority of these variables.

To put it another way, not many variables have survived, but the ones that have provide insight into the current status of this system. These variables (i.e., order parameters or collective variables) also serve as an invisible hand that controls the operation and evolution of the system, which ultimately results in the emergence of a new ordered pattern or behavior.

This can be thought of as the end result of the process described in the previous sentence. Therefore, the establishment of order parameters is the essential path that must be followed in order for self-organization to proceed in a fruitful manner (see Haken, 1977 ; Fingelkurts et al., 2013 ).

One of the most important aspects of sleep is how one feels. Several research have indicated that dreams are commonly accompanied by emotions, especially negative ones (e.g., Valli et al., 2008 ; Malinowski and Horton, 2014 ). (e.g., Valli et al., 2008 ; Malinowski and Horton, 2014 ). Several pieces of study (e.g., Desseilles et al., 2011) have pointed to a tight connection between our dreams and our feelings, with some even going so far as to call feelings an essential component of dream production.

For example, Reiser (1997) found that pictures that function as nodal points in an individual’s memory network are connected by comparable forms of affect. This finding suggests that affect plays an important role in the structure of memory. Further, Reiser (1997) hypothesized that intense feelings during sleep may elicit preexisting pictures that were already laden with feelings of the same kind, which would then activate prior experiences that were significant to the formation of a dream.

  1. Clément ( 2008 ) theorized the following chain of processes: emotions in sleep are awakened and combine to generate diverse emotional scripts, which then function as templates and duplicate a sequence of visuals to eventually construct a dream story.
  2. Hartmann ( 2010b ) noted that combinations of dream elements are not random but rather led by emotion; thus, dreams are important for creating and rebuilding an individual’s emotional memory system.

In summary, emotions presumably fulfill the function of order parameters: they regulate and lead combinations of dream elements. Emotions might consequently act as a springboard in analyzing dreams. For instance, if a patient’s dreams often revolve on distressing events, this may indicate a potential direction in which further treatment should be directed.

What is the manifest content of a dream according to Freud quizlet?

According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the dream that is recalled after awakening is what is meant to be understood by the term “manifest content.” It is the narrative of a dream that is recalled, complete with visuals, ideas, and other elements. There are occasions when the content of the manifest state may contain vestiges of the activities and concerns that were present the day before.

What Did Sigmund Freud suggest in his book The Interpretation of Dreams?

In the Western world, this explanation of dreams is by far the most well-known and probably even the most infamous one. At the turn of the last century, Sigmund Freud published his book The Interpretation of Dreams, in which he argued that our dreams are nothing more than wishes that we are looking to fulfill in our waking lives.

Freud’s book was published in the United States under the title “The Interpretation of Dreams.” There are some of these wants that are not very harmful, and when this is the case, our dreams will depict the request exactly as it is. However, there are certain desires that are so undesirable to us (such sexual or aggressive impulses that we can’t acknowledge to or act out), that our dreams have to censor them.

One example of this is sexual or aggressive impulses that we can’t admit to or act out. Such undesirable desires are normally repressed by the conscious waking mind, but they might surface in the dream world in a form that is difficult to recognize and is frequently odd.

  • However, Freud believed that the wish that was hidden beneath the dream might be uncovered with the assistance of a psychotherapist and techniques such as free association.
  • Sigmund Freud.
  • Wikimedia In recent years, the hypothesis has gained a bad reputation and has been widely discredited by current dream scientists.

This is despite the fact that it was formerly quite popular and had a significant impact on other psychological theories. There are dozens of different hypotheses floating around concerning the purpose of dreaming, ranging from the fact that it helps us process our feelings and cements new memories to the idea that we are practicing social or potentially dangerous scenarios. What Two Categories Of Dream Content Did Sigmund Freud Describe

What is the difference between the manifest content and latent content of dreams?

Different types of information may be found inside a dream. Sigmund Freud defined the “latent content” of a dream as the “hidden psychological significance” of the waking experience. This information is symbolic in nature and comprises items that are withheld from conscious awareness, most commonly due to the fact that they may be painful or traumatic.

  1. It appears in a guise.
  2. One of the aims of psychoanalysis was to decipher the meanings of these symbols in order to get insight into the desires and demands that are held unconsciously.
  3. People will be better able to discover solutions to deal with this knowledge after it has been brought to their conscious attention.
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Freud proposed that there are two distinct sorts of content inside dreams: apparent content and hidden content. He felt that the content of dreams was tied to the fulfillment of wishes. The latent content is the real literal subject matter of the dream, whereas the manifest content is the actual meaning of the symbols that are appearing in the dream.

Freud and other psychoanalysts believed that the hidden, or latent, meaning of a dream was far more significant than its overt, or visible, meaning. Freud felt that the mind was similar to an iceberg in its structure. The portion of the iceberg that is visible above the water symbolizes the conscious mind, although it is just a very small portion of the entire iceberg.

The massive portion of the iceberg that reflects one’s unconscious mind is hidden under the water’s surface, where it forms the majority of the iceberg. Therefore, dreams are one means of gaining a glimpse of what is concealed from conscious consciousness within the unconscious mind.

Imagine, for instance, that you experience a dream in which you are exposed to the public while you are naked. The actual plot of the dream is referred to as the manifest content; however, Freud believed that there was more to the dream than just its literal meaning. It’s possible that he’ll take the dream to suggest that you’re self-conscious about being seen by others, that you’re struggling with feelings of inadequacy, or that you’re worried that others will criticize your faults.

This cryptic interpretation stands for the unspoken aspects of the dream’s significance. Since Freud’s time, the practice of dream interpretation has gained in popularity. While many common theories of dreaming claim that our dreams are mostly a mirror of the hopes, anxieties, and experiences of our waking life, dream interpreters continue to believe that the hidden content of dreams frequently carries symbolic value.

What is the latent content of a dream quizlet?

In the work of psychotherapist Sigmund Freud, the concept of “latent content” refers to the psychological underpinnings that are concealed inside a dream. Freud proposed that there are two distinct sorts of content inside dreams: apparent content and hidden content. He felt that the content of dreams was tied to the fulfillment of wishes.

Which theorist described dreams as having manifest and latent content?

Key Takeaways –

  • The field of psychodynamic psychology places an emphasis on the methodical investigation of the psychological forces that are thought to underpin human behavior, feelings, and emotions, as well as the investigation of how these psychological forces could be related to early experience.
  • A human being’s level of awareness to both internal and exterior stimuli is characterized as their level of consciousness, which is the awareness of the self in space and time.
  • The conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious are the three different levels of awareness that Sigmund Freud identified inside the human mind. Each of these levels correlates to his concepts of the id, ego, and superego, and they also overlap with one another.
  • Talk therapy is utilized in the majority of psychodynamic techniques. The goal of this approach is to investigate dysfunctional functions that emerged at an early age and are, at least in part, unconscious.
  • Carl Jung built upon the foundations laid by Sigmund Freud by developing the ideas of the archetype, the collective unconscious, and individuation, among other things.
  • According to Freud’s view, the content of dreams can be classified as either latent or apparent. In contrast to the apparent content, which is shallow and devoid of significance, latent content refers to deeply buried, unconscious desires or fantasies.
  • A number of different ideas may be found within the realm of unconscious processing, including the danger simulation theory, the expectation fulfillment theory, the activation synthesis theory, and the ongoing activation theory.
  • Incubation is one application of unconscious processing that can be used in the context of problem solving. Incubation refers to the practice of “sleeping on a problem,” which means to refrain from actively and consciously attempting to find a solution to a problem in order to give one’s unconscious processes time to work on the issue.
  • The goal of the research of neural correlates of consciousness is to establish a connection between activity in the brain and the subjective experiences of humans in the external environment.
  • In a perceptual illusion, such as the Necker Cube, the physical stimulus stays the same while the experience shifts. This allows the neural mechanisms to be isolated, and it also makes it possible to monitor visual consciousness in the brain.
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging, more often known as fMRI scans, allow for the investigation and recording of brain activity.

What is the term that Freud uses for the expression in dreams of these unconscious desires and the conflicts that they create?

Freud thought that repressed impulses and wants might occasionally reveal themselves in a person’s dreams or through accidental slips of the tongue, which are now known as “Freudian slips.”

What is Sigmund Freud’s theory?

According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the human mind may be broken down into two primary components: the conscious mind and the unconscious mind. The conscious mind encompasses all the things we are aware of or can readily bring into consciousness.

  • On the other hand, the unconscious mind is comprised of everything that exists outside of our conscious knowledge.
  • This includes all of the wants, desires, hopes, drives, and memories that we aren’t aware of, but which continue to have an effect on our behavior.
  • The mind is likened to an iceberg in Freud’s theory of psychology.

The section of the iceberg that is really visible above the water serves as a metaphor for a very little part of the mind, while the massive amount of the iceberg that is concealed beneath the sea serves as a metaphor for the much more extensive unconscious.

  • The id is the most fundamental component of the psyche and the wellspring from which all of our most fundamental drives emerge. The id functions as the source of all libidinal energy despite the fact that it is completely unconscious.
  • Ego is the component of personality that deals with reality and helps guarantee that the needs of the id are fulfilled in ways that are realistic, safe, and socially acceptable. Ego is the part of personality that deals with reality and helps ensure that the demands of the id are satisfied.
  • The component of the psyche known as the superego is the one that stores all of the internalized principles and standards that we obtain from our parents, family, and society in general.

What is Freud’s latent content?

Freud’s idea about dreams – Latent content is a term that refers to the psychoanalytic interpretations that are being communicated in a dream. Freud postulated that the dreamer prevented himself from waking up and avoided painful knowledge of repressed wishes by disguising them as odd manifest content in an attempt that he referred to as “dreamwork.” He came to the conclusion that dreams are the manifestation of desires that are suppressed throughout waking life. What Two Categories Of Dream Content Did Sigmund Freud Describe

What are the dream theories in psychology?

Carl Jung: Dreams as Direct Mental Expressions Despite the fact that Freud and Carl Jung lived at the same time, they famously and vehemently differed regarding the nature of dreams. Carl Jung: Dreams as Direct Mental Expressions Freud was of the opinion that dreams, by their very nature, masked their true meaning.

Jung, on the other hand, was of the opinion that dreams were nothing more than the mind’s attempt to communicate with itself. He believed that dreams were a language that reflected an individual’s unconscious condition through a combination of metaphors and symbols. This “language” was natural to the condition of unconsciousness; nevertheless, due to the significant differences between it and waking language, it was challenging to grasp.

Notably, Jung also felt that this language included universal archetypes, which are pictures that are fundamental to all human awareness. He felt that dreams had two purposes: the first was to correct any psychological imbalances that the dreamer may have, and the second was to supply the dreamer with pictures of the future that might be used to predict what would happen in the future.

What is the difference between manifest and latent content quizlet?

Freud proposed that there are two distinct sorts of content inside dreams: apparent content and hidden content. He felt that the content of dreams was tied to the fulfillment of wishes. The hidden content is the actual literal subject-matter of the dream, while the manifest content is the significance of these symbols at a more fundamental level.

What is dreams for survival theory?

Do We Unconsciously Satisfy Our Wants and Needs Through Our Dreams? 2009 is significant since it is the 110th anniversary of the publication of Sigmund Freud’s book “The Interpretation of Dreams.” Freud believed that dreams may provide insight into the unconscious mind.

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Freud once stated, “I shall demonstrate that there is a psychological technique which makes it possible to interpret dreams, and that on the application of this technique, every dream will reveal itself as a psychological structure, full of significance,” and he went on to say that he would do so in the following way: “I shall demonstrate that there is a psychological technique which makes it possible to interpret dreams,” He felt that the ideas, sentiments, and desires that threaten the waking mind are discharged as distorted and disguised visions in our dreams.

He said this was the only explanation. Therefore, dreams function on two levels: the apparent level, which consists of those aspects of the dream that are consciously recalled after waking up, and the latent level, also known as the unconscious level, which is where the dream’s deeper significance is contained.

The term “Activation-Input-Mode” refers to a hypothesis about the causes of dreams that takes into account neural activation, stimulation, and our current level of alertness (AIM). One of the more well-known and widely accepted biological explanations for dreaming is known as the AIM theory. According to AIM, activation refers to the degree to which brain activity is present and can range from a minimal quantity to a significant amount.

The mode comprises of dimensions that span from awake to dreaming states, and the input level of awareness refers to the extent to which stimulus can be either internal or external. Cognitive theorists contend that our waking thoughts and our dreams are fundamentally identical processes.

They highlight the fact that memory, the ability to solve problems, and speech are all present in dreams. Other ideas, such as the ones listed below, are not covered in this particular textbook. Dreaming, according to proponents of the Reverse Learning Theory (Crick & Mitchinson, 1983), acts as a kind of mental housecleaning so that we do not go into overload.

This theory proposes that dreaming is a way of flushing away unnecessary information that has accumulated over the course of the day. According to the Dreams for Survival Theory, when an individual is sleeping, vital knowledge for day-to-day survival might be reexamined and reprocessed in their minds thanks to dreams.

  • The uncertainties, hesitation, thoughts, and aspirations that we have can all be seen as representations of our day-to-day issues within our dreams, according to this hypothesis.
  • During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the brain is thought to create random electrical energy, presumably as a result of changes in the synthesis of particular neurotransmitters, in accordance with the Activation Synthesis Theory.

The memories that are stored in the various regions of the brain are sporadically stimulated by this electrical activity. After then, the brain takes the jumbled up memories and reassembles them into a coherent narrative. go to the top | go to the previous page | go to the next page

What is manifest content AP Psychology?

Different varieties of consciousness – A person is said to be conscious when they are awake and aware of both their own mental activity as well as external inputs. The characteristics of consciousness that are being experienced by an individual at a specific point in time are referred to as that person’s “state of consciousness.” A transient condition that is markedly different from a typical waking state; examples of altered states of consciousness include sleeping, meditating, being in a coma, being under the effect of hypnosis, or being under the influence of drugs.

All of the items that are now within an individual’s consciousness, including information about themselves as well as their immediate surroundings. Also known as the conscious level. Non-conscious level: The automatic biological activities of the body, such as breathing and heartbeat, which are regulated by the brain but are normally outside of one’s active awareness.

Non-consciousness refers to a state of being in which one is not aware of their own biological processes. In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the preconscious level refers to all of the unrepressed stored memories, thoughts, and information that can be recalled and moved from the unconscious level to the conscious level in a matter of seconds.

In other words, the preconscious level contains everything that can be moved from the unconscious level to the conscious level. Unconscious level According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious mind is comprised of the ideas, impulses, and drives that are purposefully hidden from conscious knowledge and that influence mental activity in a way that is not directly related to conscious awareness.

Information that is not consciously known by a person but nevertheless has an effect on their mental processes is said to exist at the subconscious level. Priming occurs when an individual is exposed to a stimulus below their level of conscious awareness, which then alters their reaction to additional stimuli.

The preference for familiar stimuli over new stimuli, even when exposure to the stimuli does not occur on a conscious level. This phenomenon is referred to as the “mere-exposure effect.” NREM sleep, also known as non-rapid eye movement sleep, is a kind of sleep that does not involve dreaming and is broken up into four different but connected stages.

REM sleep, sometimes known as “dream sleep,” is the stage of sleep during which people are most likely to have vivid dreams. Hypnagogic hallucinations are any sensory experiences, such as sights or noises, that a person encounters when in the transitional state between being awake and asleep.

Sleep spindles are bursts of neuronal activity that occur in stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. These bursts of activity may be vital for the consolidation of memories. In non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, phases 3 and 4 are referred to as slow wave sleep. During these stages, both neuronal activity and brain waves slow down significantly.

REM sleep is sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep because of the seemingly contradictory nature of the state, in which the brain remains active while the body is at rest. The real occurrences and imagery contained inside a dream that, according to Freud, serves to conceal the dreamer’s unconscious ideas and wants.

Manifest content is also known as manifest dream content. Latent content is, to use Freudian terminology, the unconscious ideas and desires that lie behind the material that is evident in one’s dreams. The activation-synthesis hypothesis is a theory that asserts the interpretations of neural activity that occur in the brain during REM sleep are the source of dreams.

The information-processing hypothesis is a theory that asserts dreaming is a means for the brain to deal with stress. This theory examines how dreams are processed in the brain. Night terrors are a type of sleep disturbance that cause the sufferer to abruptly wake up from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with sensations of great anxiety, agitation, or dread.

What is the purpose of dreams according to activation-synthesis theory quizlet?

Dreaming is an attempt to free oneself from the influence of other people. According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreaming is the result of the brain attempting to combine seemingly unconnected bursts of activity in the visual brain regions with the emotional tone given by the activity of the limbic system.

Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses?

The Physiological Processes of the Brain While You Sleep The activation-synthesis paradigm proposes that the physiological processes of the brain while you sleep are the source of your dreams. In the past, people had the misconception that sleeping and dreaming was a passive activity.

  • However, experts have discovered that the brain is quite active even while the body is in a state of sleep.
  • So, what kinds of processes are going on when the person’s brain is at rest? When we are asleep, our brains engage in a vast array of neuronal activities.
  • During sleep, the brain is able to accomplish a variety of tasks, including organizing memories from the previous day and clearing out any debris that may have accumulated.

According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis, dreams are caused by the physiological processes that occur when we are asleep. This idea proposes that sleep is responsible for dreaming.

What theory of dreaming proposes that dreaming involves information processing memory and problem solving?

Chapters 5 and 7 of PSY 102 from the Fall 2011 Semester Chapter 5 A person’s knowledge of external events and internal sensations in a situation of arousal, including awareness of the self and ideas about one’s experience; this is what we mean when we talk about consciousness.

There are two categories of consciousness: (1) the overall level of alertness (Sleep Vs. wakefulness) (2) The center of attention or the state of current consciousness How can we define consciousness? The Higher Level, the Lower Level, and Everything in Between A Higher Level of Consciousness Requires Your Full Attention Because It Involves Controlled Processing, Actively Focusing Efforts Towards a Goal, and Requires You to Pay (Conducting calculations in mathematics or science; getting ready for a discussion; having a turn at bat in a baseball game.) Lower Level awareness – (Automatic processes take less attention / conscious effort.

Do not interfere with other activities that are already taking place. (Day dreaming is characterized by rambling thoughts that include elements of fantasy, imagination, and ruminating, all of which have the potential to be helpful in addressing problems.) (for example, entering a number on a mobile phone; typing quickly on a computer keyboard when one is an expert; watching a sunset) A state of consciousness that has been altered may be caused by drugs, medicine, hypnosis, mental problems, sickness, trauma, sleep deprivation, or exhaustion.

(For instance, experiencing the affects of drinking alcohol or using psychedelic drugs; participating in hypnosis in order to give up smoking or reduce one’s weight.) Subconscious awareness is something that can take place while a person is awake, while they are asleep, and even while they are dreaming ( In example sleeping and dreaming) No Awareness- Freud’s view that certain unconscious thoughts are too burdened with worry and other unpleasant emotions for consciousness to accept them,

(For instance, having ideas that are not aware; being knocked out by a blow; or being anesthetized.) William James used the term “stream of consciousness” to refer to the way in which the mind operates as an ongoing stream of constantly shifting sensations, pictures, ideas, and feelings.

  1. Controlled processes- The most alert states for human awareness, during which humans intentionally direct their efforts toward a goal.
  2. Automatic processes are states of awareness that don’t take much attention and don’t get in the way of other activities that are already going on.
  3. Unconscious thinking is, in accordance with Freud’s understanding, a reservoir of unwanted wants, sensations, and thoughts that are beyond conscious consciousness.
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Freud’s interpretation of the unconscious regarded it as a repository for filthy ideas and thoughts. Studies of cognition pertaining to consciousness: Attention as a synonym for consciousness concentration : focused attention Comparison of Automatic Processing versus Controlled Processing – The Influence of Practice on Consciousness Effects of priming on Implicit Memory as Opposed to Explicit Memory Recall test vs.

Perceptual identification test Priming test – cognitive research on the state of awareness Subjects that have suffered brain injury – (Blind sight: Loss of visual consciousness due to damage to primary visual cortex.) Prosopagnosia is defined as the inability to recognize faces as a result of impairment to the temporal lobe’s visual pathway.

Sleep- A natural condition of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of awareness Biological rhythms are periodic changes in physiology that occur in the body on a regular basis. These changes, which can have an effect on behavior, include the rise and fall of hormone levels and the acceleration and deceleration of cycles of brain activity.

Daily cycles of behavior or physiology are referred to as circadian rhythms. The sleep-wake cycles, as well as the temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level, are all part of the circadian rhythms that occur daily. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is a tiny structure in the brain that receives input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark.

It is the mechanism that the body employs to monitor the transition from day to night. Stages of sleep- NREM (Non-rapid eye movement ) Sleep: Stage one ( lightest sleep) The second stage ( deeper sleep) Stage 3& 4 (Deepest sleep) ( REM-Rapid eye movement ) Light sleep, also known as paradoxical sleep, is a kind of sleep.

  1. NREM( Non-Rem) ( Non-Rem) This includes phases 1 through 4 of the sleep cycle.
  2. Characterized by brain waves with a lower frequency, a slower heart rate and breathing, and infrequent, straightforward dreaming.
  3. Satisfies a need imposed by biology ( NREM needs met before REM needs) REM( Rapid eye movement) ( Rapid eye movement) Sleep – Also known as paradoxical sleep: includes high-frequency brain waves, increased pulse and respiration, big muscle.

Meets a requirement imposed by biology. May have a function in learning and solidifying new memories. Active period of sleep during which dreaming happen. Research on sleep often makes use of EEG, EOG, and EMG as its primary instruments. Why do we need sleep: Functions of Adaptation in the Evolutionary Process Efficiency, safety, and energy saving are our top priorities.

  • The restorative function contributes to the renewal and expansion of the body.
  • Memory can be consolidated more effectively thanks to brain plasticity, which strengthens synaptic connections.
  • The cognitive theory of dreaming focuses on how information is processed and stored in memory.
  • Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory: Manifest and Latent Content Activation-Synthesis Theory: The Brain Makes “Sense” Out of Random Brain Activity Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory: Manifest and Latent Content Activation-Synthesis Theory: The Brain Make According to Freud, the surface content of a dream is known as its Manifest Content.

This content is comprised of dream symbols that serve to conceal the dream’s actual significance. Latent Content is what Freud referred to as the “hidden content” of a dream, as well as its unconscious and essential significance. The cognitive theory of dreaming is a theory that proposes that we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts that we use in order to study the waking mind.

This theory is predicated on the notion that dreams are essentially subconscious cognitive processing that involves information and memory. The Activation-Synthesis Theory proposes that dreaming takes place when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals created by activity in the lower section of the brain in an effort to find meaning in the seemingly random brain activity that takes place when a person is sleeping.

Sleep Disorders – Insomnia, Sleep walking, talking, and eating, nightmares, night terrors, narcolepsy, sleep apnea Insomnia refers to recurrent issues with falling asleep, remaining sleeping, or waking up at an inappropriate time. Apnea of Sleep is defined as the recurrent cessation of breathing during sleep.

Narcolepsy is characterized by unexpected and uncontrollable bouts of sleep in the middle of the day or night. Nightmares are frightful nightmares that occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the conclusion of one’s sleep cycle. Night terrors are characterized by an abrupt awakening from non-REM sleep that is followed by significant physiological arousal and a sensation of panic.

Chemicals that alter one’s state of consciousness, emotion, or perception are referred to as psychoactive drugs. (referring to the effect of the act on the neural system) After the manufacture or synthesis of neurotransmitters, the process of how they operate will begin.

(2) Modify the storage or release of neurotransmitters (3) Following the reception of neurotransmitters (4) Modify the deactivation of neurotransmitter receptors (block the reuptake or breakdown or excess neurotransmitters.) Tolerance is defined as the requirement of taking increasingly large doses of a medicine in order to have the same benefit.

Physical dependence is the physiological demand for a substance that, when the drug is removed, creates unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical discomfort and a yearning for the drug itself. Psychological Dependence is the intense desire to repeat the use of a substance for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well-being and the decrease of stress.

  1. Psychological Dependence can be caused by both physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms.
  2. Addiction can refer to either a physical dependency on a substance or a psychological dependence on a drug, or both.
  3. Abuse of drugs refers to the use of drugs in a manner that causes mental or bodily harm to the user or to others.

When someone stops using addictive medications, they may suffer symptoms of discomfort and misery known as withdrawal. See page 155 for further information about the reward route for psychoactive substances. The prefrontal cortex receives information after it is sent from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nac.

  • The VTA may be found in the region of the midbrain that is immediately above the pons, and the NAc can be found in the region of the forebrain that is just beneath the prefrontal cortex.
  • Psychoactive substances that reduce both mental and physical activity are known as depressants ( Valium, alcohol) Alcoholism is an illness that is characterized by long-term, recurrent, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic drinks.

This use compromises the health of the drinker as well as their ability to maintain healthy relationships with others. Barbiturates are depressant medications that lower activity in the central nervous system. Examples of barbiturates are nembutal and seconal.

Drugs like Valium and Xanax that are classified as depressants and are used to treat anxiety and promote relaxation are known as tranquilizers. Opiates are a class of narcotic medications that are derived from opium and work by suppressing activity in the central nervous system. They also have the effect of removing pain.

Stimulants are psychoactive substances that raise the activity level of the central nervous system. Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine are the types of stimulants that are used most frequently. Hallucinogens are psychoactive chemicals that alter a person’s perceptual experiences and cause the production of visual pictures that are not real.

These medications are also known as psychedelics (LSD, Marijuana) “Club Drugs” Date Rape ( Rohypnol) MDMA(Ecstasy) GHB (Gamma- Hydroxybutyrate) Special K ( Ketamine) LSD, Methamphetamine Crystals (Methamphetamine) ( Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) Hypnosis- An altered state of consciousness or a psychological condition of altered attention and expectancy in which the individual is exceptionally open to suggestions.

A condition like trance characterized by increased suggestibility, profound relaxation, and focused attention. Is employed in the management of persistent pain, serious burns, dentistry, labor and delivery, and psychotherapy. The view that hypnosis involves a splitting of consciousness into two separate components, one of which follows the hypnotist’s commands and the other of which acts as a “hidden observer,” is known as the “divided consciousness view of hypnosis.” This is Hilliard’s interpretation of what happens during hypnosis.